The copyright law of Canada governs the legally enforceable rights to creative and artistic works under the laws of Canada. Canada passed its first colonial copyright statute in 1832 but was subject to imperial copyright law established by Britain until 1921. Current copyright law was established by the Copyright Act of Canada which was first passed in 1921 and substantially amended in 1988, 1997 and 2012.
Copyright includes the right to first publish, reproduce, perform, transmit and show in in public. Additionally, other subsidiary rights such as abridgment and translation are also conferred. A work must be original and can include literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works or compilations. Copyright is granted the moment the work is created and does not distinguish work of a professional or that of an amateur. There is also no distinction between for profit or commercial use or for hobby purposes. Literary work includes anything that is written, such speeches, essays and books and may be in any form. However, a short string of words or spontaneous speech is not covered. Dramatic works include the characters, scenes, choreography, cinematography, relationship between characters, dialogue and dramatic expression. Artistic works include sculptures, paintings, photographs, charts and engravings. Musical works include any musical compositions with or without words. Unexpressed ideas are not protected work.
The Canadian Intellectual Property Office, is a operating agency of Industry Canada and administers most of Canada’s IP laws and regulations to ensure that they meet present and future client needs and best contribute to the Canadian economy. The Canadian Intellectual Property Office grants or registers ownership for the following five types of IP: patents, trade-marks, copyrights, industrial designs and integrated circuit topographies. Second, it makes accessible to the public the details of new innovations registered in Canada, thereby encouraging further economic activity. The Canadian Intellectual Property Office core functions reward and encourage innovation and the use of IP by granting IP rights, maintaining a responsive IP framework, and ensuring that the IP data collected by Canadian Intellectual Property Office is available to all its clients, in Canada and abroad.
Some Canadian small and medium-sized enterprises assume that the IP rights are not so important mostly because they do not fully understand the IP benefits and implications. There are many companies that have very valuable IP rights but they don’t use them effectively. Other companies are occasionally involved unintentionally in violating the IP rights of others without being aware of the legal consequences for doing so.
As hiring trends in Canada are improving, workers in the high-tech industries will be in the highest demand by far. Surveys by multiple career-oriented websites have found that Canadian employers looking to hire new workers are identifying IT professionals as their biggest need.
To deal with the serious labor shortages in skilled trade industries and computer technologies, the government of Canada has been implementing initiatives to encourage more Canadians to enroll in vocational training. The budget allocated $500 million over two years to support skilled tradespeople and IT training.
There is an abundance of available jobs for skilled tradespeople and tech jobs in Canada. Canada provides temporary work permits to foreign-trained skilled workers who can obtain a Canadian job offer also.
Most students who complete vocational education in Canada are obtaining employment immediately upon graduation. Recruiters are lining up to find qualified skilled tradespeople and companies are increasingly looking to foreign-trained workers to staff their organizations.
Culture in Canada has a lot of aspects because of the diversity in the people that live in such this large area. Historically there is a lot of European influence in Canada’s traditions. French and British cultures are very prominent along with its own Indigenous cultures. American culture has bleed into Canada also because of the close proximity and migration from the USA.
Canada has a very progressive style that is diverse and broad. The Canadian Government has influence this culture with some of the policies it has put in place over the years. Some of the policies are same-sex marriage, making capital punishment illegal, higher taxation to increase public assistance, and publicly funded health care system.
Sports in Canada consist of a lot of different games, but the first one that comes to mind when thinking about Canada is ice hockey. Hockey is Canada’s most popular winter sport and they are the most successful at this when it comes to international rankings and competition. Sense Canada has a cooler climate, they attribute this to the reason that they are more successful at the Olympic Winter games over the Summer Olympics.
When doing business in Canada, their are not many differences then in the USA, but there are some that should be taken into account. However there is a considerable difference in focus between the United States and Canada as it pertains to employment and labor relations. In essence, Canadian law presumes the vulnerability of employees, and provides protections and minimum standards with which all employers must comply. Canada has a strong employee or labor bias that is less evident in the United States.
Americans doing business in Canada require employees. They need to conduct the hiring, and then managing and sometimes terminating, of these employees. There are also special challenges related to labor relations in Canada. Rather than risk exposure to penal sanctions, workforce disruptions, and/or lawsuits, local employment and labor lawyers should be used before you get yourself in trouble.
Canada has two official languages, English and French. English accounts for 56.9% and French accounts for 21.3% of the population who speak these languages at home as their first choice The Canadian Constitution recognizes both English and French as the official language and therefore all government services will offer both. This means when you go to a government ran facility such as a courthouse, you will be able to request the information in either language.
Canada’s language diversity goes past just the two official languages though. Canada has over 50 native languages and that means over 6.4 million people use another language other then English or French as their first language. Canada even has a population of .6% that speak what is considered an Indigenous or Aboriginal language.
98.2% of Canadians have knowledge of one or both of the country’s two official languages according to the 2011 census. From 2006 to 2011, the number of people that are able to speak both English and French rose nearly 350,000 people up to a total of around 5.8 million. Quebec is the most bilingual of all the territories with 94.3% of the people are knowledgeable in French and 47.2% knowledgeable in English. This area and one other area is know ans the “bilingual belt.” This makes 57.4% of the whole Canadian population that is bilingual come from Quebec itself, and a high percentage of the rest of the bilingual population residing very close to Quebec.
Canada’s IT Infrastructure
Cananda’s largest 3 telecommunication companies that build Canada’s IT Infrastructure are Bell Telephone Company, Rogers Telecommunications, and Telus.
Bell Telephone Company was founded in 1880 and Canada granted Bell a monopoly on the long distance phone service that gave this company a great foundation for success. Bell is a publicly traded company that employs 54,000 workers and is traded under the symbol BCE on the New York Stock Exchange.
Rogers Communications is another large player in Canada’s tel-com market. Rogers focuses on the mobile telephone market and is also traded publicly as ticker symbol RCI. Rogers employs around 28,000 employees and in 2010 reported profits in its first quarter of over 11.3 billion Canadian dollars.
Telus is the newest player in the game and was founded in 1999. Telus provides home telephone, high speed internet, cable television, satellite television, and cell phone service throughout Canada. With 12 million customer connections, 6.5 million wireless subscribers, 4 million network access lines, and 1.1 million customers taking advantage of its high speed internet service, Telus is a large piece to Canada’s IT infrastructure.
IT Stats in Canada
Internet in Canada
- Internet service providers: 760
- Country codes: CA, CDN, 124
- Internet users: 25.086 million
- Internet hosts: 7.77 million
- Total households with Internet access: 6.7 million out of 12.3 million
- Total households with high speed connection: 65%
- Total users of home online banking: 57%
Telephones – main lines in use: 18.251 million (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 23.081 million (2009)
- Domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
- International: 7 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations – 5